A Symbiotic Planet by Lynn Margulis

The Earth is a Planet and I want to give you the sense of a massive revolution in our thinking – revolution in our thinking – revolution in our thinking.

I just found life so interesting.
I never believed what they told me. I think that a crucial thing about science.
I had lots of problems, but the problems were intellectual. That is people didn’t like what I was saying. They didn’t like me reading the old stuff.
I order to really understand a problem, like the problem of heredity, you had to understand what people had done in the past.

The question was: “What connects generations?”

They tried to tell me, and they probably tried to tell you, that random mutation will generate all this novelty. And I don’t believe it.

When you get something really novel, that is a new species, a new organ, new tissues, new organelles, new features in evolution, it’s never by random mutation.
All organisms are related. Everything alive, everything we see – related, because we all have common ancestors.
In biology one plus one do not necessarily equal two. In many cases, one plus one  integrate and they still equal one.

Symbiosis is the living together of more than one species throughout the life history, in physical contact of at least one of them. And yes, the more we study it, the more we realise that all organisms, that you can see with the unaided eye, are living in symbiosis with others.

You can’t talk about cost benefit or competition because these words are fit for the banks but they’re not proper for the scientific explanation.

A cell, a nucleated cell, is that it is a coevolved, integrated, microbial community.
The concept is that random mutation is never enough to go from one species to another.
All cells are like maxitrica. They are all composites, they in some way are individuals, but their individualist is the result of fusion.

The atmosphere and the surface sediments, are regulated by the activities of over 30 million types of living organisms. The temperature and the chemistry is regulated by these organisms.

If symbiosis is simply the living together of organisms at the same place at the same time, in physical contact with one each other, and that’s all it is, if that’s what symbiosis is, and symbiogenesis is when  new emergent properties come from living together, then Gaia, which is the whole earth living system, is symbiosis as seen from space.
We are entirely dependent on the production and the removal of our food and our waste by other organisms. And every individual, so called, is entirely embedded in this biosphere surface.
Independence from the biosphere, that is independence from the rest of life, is absolutely equivalent to death.

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